低鈉

鹽巴

 

回到首頁

  • 更新日期:2017-12-15

  • 編寫者:Jose Kuo


要吃粗鹽,不要吃精製鹽。
粗鹽會升高pH值(鹼性化),例如:1茶匙粗鹽造成pH值6.4→6.8;反之,精製鹽會降低pH值(酸性化),例如:1茶匙精製鹽造成pH值6.4→6.0。
粗鹽含礦物質,顏色是灰灰的;精製鹽不含礦物質,顏色是白色。(玫瑰鹽是岩鹽,也含礦物質,顏色是粉紅色。)
粗鹽不會升高血壓,精製鹽會升高血壓。
市面上販售的海鹽,只要是白色的,都已經精製過了,不再是未精製的粗鹽。粗鹽會黏黏的、結成一團,不會粒粒鬆散,因為粗鹽沒有加入抗結劑(anti-caking agent)的成分。
粗鹽之所以濕濕的,是因為它的結晶有很多小孔,吸附著濃縮的海水,這些濃縮的海水裡面所含的鎂與鉀是一般海水的35倍。這是相當寶貴的!可惜為了利益,人們提煉海水,抽取當中最寶貴的礦物質賣給工業界,留下最沒價值的氯化鈉給我們食用。這些濃縮的海水就是在精製過程中消失的!另外,精製過程還加了漂白劑、抗結劑(含鋁),大家吃了還能放心嗎?

粗鹽唯一要注意的是它的來源不能有汙染。

除了顏色之外,另一個判別的方法是閱讀食物標籤。精製鹽所含的氯化鈉幾乎是98%以上,而粗鹽則只有84%的氯化鈉。

 

【名稱辨識】

海鹽是指來自海洋的鹽,有別於湖鹽、岩鹽、井鹽,但是海鹽不一定就是粗鹽,市面上販售的海鹽,大多數是精製過的海鹽,並非原始的海鹽。

粗鹽是指未精製過的鹽,含有礦物質。粗鹽可以是粗海鹽、粗湖鹽、粗岩鹽或粗井鹽。

精鹽是指精製過的鹽,不含有礦物質。精鹽可以是精製海鹽、精製湖鹽、精製岩鹽或精製井鹽。

 

【鹽巴的重要性】

我們身體儲存很多鈉,就是因為鈉的鹼化能力最強,可以合成碳酸氫鈉(小蘇打粉的成分),幫助小腸建立鹼性環境,讓小腸的酵素能夠活躍。同時也可以中和生化反應所產生的酸性代謝物,避免細胞的內外環境過度酸化,降低了氧氣進入細胞的通透性。
鈉的來源最普遍的是鹽巴,鹽巴的主要成分是氯化鈉,它的功用很多,其中的氯可以合成胃酸(氯化氫),其中的鈉可以合成碳酸氫鈉,身體需要酸或需要鹼,都可以從鹽巴提煉,所以,如果奉行低鹽飲食,我們的酵素,包括嗜酸性酵素與嗜鹼性酵素,就很難發揮作用。

 

【補充】

  • 未精製的粗鹽含有92種微量礦物質。

  • 海水的pH=8.1
    血液的pH=7.4
    Hunza Valley
    礦泉水的pH=9~11
    精製鹽的pH=5
    小蘇打溶液的pH=8.03 (1茶匙+200cc)
    氯化鎂溶液的pH=8.5 (1茶匙+200cc)


 【鹽巴與高血壓的關係】

  • 根據Graudal的研究統計:(http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/187486)
    80%的正常血壓者,鹽巴對血壓沒有影響。
    75%的高血壓前期患者,鹽巴對血壓沒有影響。
    55%的高血壓確診患者,鹽巴對血壓沒有影響。
    血壓超過140/90mmHg者,減少鹽巴只能降低3.6/1.6mmHg的血壓。

  • 全世界前3名最低冠心病死亡率的國家都是鹽巴攝取量很高的國家:
    1.南韓
    2.法國
    3.日本

  • Kirkendall的實驗:一群中年人從極低鈉(230毫克/日)改成高鈉(9430毫克/日),為期4周,發現身體的水重與血壓都沒有變化。(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1249473)

  • 科學家發現,體重減少後,血壓也會跟著降低,但這不是減少鹽巴攝取量的結果,因為鹽巴的攝取量一直都沒有改變。

  • 鈉缺乏症狀:肌肉疲勞、痙攣、抽筋、心悸。

  • 17世紀人們每日平均攝取100克鹽巴,今日人們每日只攝取10克而已。

  • 低鈉或許能降血壓,但是降血壓並不代表降低心血管疾病,事實上,血壓降低,心跳就必須加速,同時血壓低也比較容易跌倒,造成骨折。

  • 低鈉飲食會升高總膽固醇/高密度脂蛋白的比值、升高三酸、升高胰島素、增加胰島素抗阻。

補充資料:

http://www.life-saving-naturalcures-and-naturalremedies.com/high-blood-pressure-natural-remedy-salt.html
容:
If you've already read our first article on natural remedies for high blood pressure (if you haven't then you can click on the link at the bottom of this page), then you will realize that we are back onto the controversial subject of salt and high blood pressure. This debate has been raging for many years and I think it's an important one that needs to be cleared up.

The medical profession seems hell bent on trying to convince people to restrict the amount of salt in their diet because it’s supposedly so bad for you, even though there's no real evidence to prove this theory. Even the American Heart Association has agreed that there is a distinct lack of proof on the salt and high blood pressure theory...

In July of 1997 they came out with an article titled, Doctors Lack Proof That Too Much Salt is Bad For You, and said that…

“After years of telling healthy people that too much salt isn’t good for them, researchers still don’t have solid evidence to back up that claim”.

And cardiologist, Dr. Alexander Gordon Logan, went through an extensive amount of research data to try and find a connection between salt intake and high blood pressure.

He couldn’t find anything and actually came out and said... (published in J.A.M.A) "You might as well go ahead and salt your food to taste".

"High Blood Pressure Natural Remedy" - Salt Sensitivity Theory Still to be Proven...

The only connection to salt and high blood pressure that has possibly been found is the fact that around 10% of the population might be salt sensitive. So these people may experience a rise in blood pressure from too much salt in the diet. Even if this were true, 10% of the population isn’t much. We believe the likely cause is not actually salt sensitivity; it’s more likely rampant mineral deficiencies!

Even Dr. Deepak Chopra, in his book Perfect Health, makes a comment about the salt and high blood pressure theory. He says…

In the West, the connection between salt and hypertension has been convincing enough that many patients with high blood pressure have been forbidden to eat any but the smallest amounts of salt. This implied that salt was somehow an enemy. Now it is known that such restrictions were too severe – normal person can eat all the salt he wants without harm to his blood pressure.
Yes, There are Good Salts and Bad Salts...

Of course, like most things, there are “good” and “bad” salts.

Commercially available table salt is the bad one, even if it says its naturally evaporated sea salt (there’s no regulation on salt so technically any salt could be classed as “sea salt” as it all came from the ocean once upon a time). These table salts are normally bleached and contain various toxic additives such as aluminium hydroxide and anti-caking agents. If you use them you can pretty much be guaranteed to end up with problems such as gout, arthritis, rheumatism, and kidney and gall bladder stones.

Sea salt is a better choice as long as you can get it from a reputable source that can guarantee it is genuine sea salt. Even then, these salts can be contaminated with mercury, dioxin and other poisons.

The best salt, however, is pink rock salt, which also contains other important minerals and trace minerals besides sodium (salt) in a highly absorbable form.

Pink rock salt is very good for you and has actually been found to stabilize and lower blood pressure, making it a potent natural remedy for high blood pressure.

The most popular and reputable is Himalayan pink salt but you can also find it in Australia, Hawaii, Peru, Utah and Poland. Pink rock salt is slowly becoming more and more widely available as its popularity continues to grow.

So folks, forget all the nonsense about salt giving you high blood pressure, and instead, go ahead and salt your food to taste without feeling guilty (with some pink rock salt of course). And don’t be afraid that you might eat too much, because if you do, your taste buds will soon let you know and you simply won’t want to eat it!

【參考資料】

《Salt Your Way To Health—David Brownstein

 


【關於鹽巴】--摘自《The Salt Fix》

  • 若不加予限制,人們每日的攝取量很自然地會落在3~4克之間,全球皆然,不分地區、種族或文化。

  • 實施低醣飲食,每日低於50克醣類,前10天大約會流失4~8克的鈉,有些人甚至流失達20克。這些流失的鈉可以在前二周內補充回來,大約每天額外補充1克的鈉,或是集中在第一周補充,每天額外補充2克的鈉。

  • 鹽巴可以打破糖癮的惡性循環。

  • 低鹽飲食的可能後遺症:
    心跳增加
    腎臟病
    腎上腺不足
    甲狀腺低下(碘攝取不足)
    三酸過高
    膽固醇過高
    胰島素濃度過高
    胰島素抗阻
    肥胖
    第2型糖尿病

  • 低鈉→身體被迫分泌較多的胰島素來幫助腎臟留住鈉→過多胰島素導致身體進入儲存模式→儲存的脂肪與蛋白質很難分解來提供能源,只剩下醣類比較容易分解→產生糖癮,因為身體判斷醣類是唯一可用的能源,特別是精製醣類,最能有效迅速提供能源→渴望精製醣類→精製醣類越吃越多→過剩的精製醣類儲存為脂肪→肥胖、胰島素抗阻→代謝症候群(第2型糖尿病、高血壓、高血脂)

  • 腎臟每天可過濾3.2~3.6磅的鹽巴,相當於1.28~1.44磅的鈉,換算成公克是580~650克的鈉,大約是一天鈉攝取量的150倍。大多數健康機構建議每天不要攝取超過6克的鹽巴,相當於2.3克的鈉,這個量腎臟只要花5分鐘的時間就能把它過濾掉了。

  • 腎臟的再吸收工作比排放工作還要耗費能量,這也是低鈉飲食帶給腎臟很大負擔的原因。DiNicolantonio認為這種耗能會導致一個人懶得活動,保持靜態來節省能源支出。

  • 腹瀉、嘔吐、流汗都會流失鹽分。

  • 鹽分不足會降低運動的速度、耐力與散熱能力。

  • 需要攝取較多鹽分的情況:
    攝取過多的糖
    慢性病(甲狀腺低下、腎上腺不足、充血性心臟衰竭)
    藥物(利尿劑、抗憂鬱藥、抗精神病藥、某些糖尿病藥、Sulfamethoxazole)
    振奮提神飲料(含咖啡因的茶、咖啡及其他飲品)
    劇烈運動
    低醣飲食、間歇性或長期性斷食
    低醣引起的肌肉痙攣

  • 鹽不足的可能風險:
    心跳加速
    脫水
    認知障礙
    骨折
    氧氣或營養素輸送障礙
    早死
    心理壓力應變能力不足
    生理壓力應變能力不足(腸胃疾病、失血、中風、心臟病)

  • 高鹽狀態可以提高皮膚、淋巴組織的抵抗力,例如:病毒感染、皮膚感染或糖尿病皮膚潰瘍。

  • 低鹽食品或食物的含菌量較高。

  • 低鹽食品的保存期較短,例如:培根的含鹽量從3.5%降到2.3%,保存日期會從56天減為28天,所以廠商必須添加防腐劑來延長保存期限。

  • 食物中毒時,低鹽飲食者的死亡風險較高,因為食物中毒常常伴隨嘔吐與腹瀉,流失過多的鈉。